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Pharmaceutical Analysis Essay Example Ireland

Many may not know about the concept of pharmaceutical analysis and for them, this essay might prove to be useful.

Pharmaceutical analysis is a field within practical chemistry that deals with processes like determination, identification, purification, quantification of a substance.

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It also deals with the separation of the different components that are there in a mixture or a solution. It also deals with the understanding of the structures of chemical compounds.

While doing pharmaceutical analysis of substances it is to comprehend that the substances can be compound mixtures or they can be single compounds. The substances that are utilized as pharmaceuticals are plants, animals, minerals, micro-organisms, other synthetic products.

The sample that is to be analyzed can be classified as macro, semi-micro, and micro, sub-micro, ultra-micro, trace analysis, and such classification is done based on the sample size.

This essay discusses the types of chemical analyses. It also discusses the various methods that are used in the analysis. The essay also discusses the different applications of pharmaceutical analysis.

Chemical Analysis Types

There are two types of chemical analysis and they are as follows:-

Qualitative

Such a type of analysis helps to comprehend the composition of synthetic or natural substances. The qualitative analysis determines whether a substance is there in a sample or not.

The qualitative tests include limit tests, formations of precipitates, detections of gases that evolve, reactions involving color changes, melting point tests, and boiling point tests.

The different qualitative analysis types in this regard are mentioned as follows:-

  • Chemical methods (volumetric, gravimetric, gasometrical)
  • Electrical methods
  • Biological methods
  • Instrumental methods

Quantitative

The quantitative analysis is utilized to quantify any substance or compound that is there within a sample.

The quantitative analysis is based on the quantitative performances of chemical reactions, calculating the reagent amount added to finish off a reaction or calculating the product that is obtained.

The quantitative analysis also is based on substance movements through a medium under conditions, electrical measurements, calculating spectroscopic attributes of compounds.

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Discussion of the different qualitative analysis types

The various qualitative analysis types are described as follows:-

Chemical methods

There are as many as 3 types of chemical methods and they are mentioned as follows:-

Volumetric methods

If you are required to know about an unknown substance then you react it with an agent using a chemical solution base. In this process, the volume of the solution is calculated.

Such methods are not complicated and they are known to furnish accurate results. Common volumetric methods include neutralization reactions, precipitation reactions, complex metric reactions, non-aqueous reactions, and oxidation and reduction reactions.

Gravimetric methods

The gravimetric methods are used to understand as well as calculate the amount of a substance. For that, the substance is made to a precipitate in pure form which is insoluble. After then the substance is obtained and weighed. The process is very time-consuming.

In this context, it is relevant to mention that there are electro-gravimetric and thermo-gravimetric. Both these types of gravimetric methods use different principles.

Gasometric methods

The gasometrical methods involve calculating the amount of gas that is absorbed or evolved in a reaction. The gases that are analyzed using this type of method include CO2, N2, N2O, helium.

Electrical Methods

In this type of analysis, the electrical current that is generated is calculated, the resistance and voltage are also calculated. Using the data along with the amount of the substance that is there is the solution the analysis is performed.

Such analysis methods include the following:-

Conductometry

It calculates the conductivity of the electrodes.

Potentiometry

It calculates the electrical potentials of the electrodes in equilibriums with the ions that are to be calculated.

Voltammetry

This analysis measures electrical current at micro-electrodes.

Polarography

This analysis measures electrical current at micro-electrodes.

Amperometry

This analysis measures electrical current at micro-electrodes.

Instrumental Methods

These analytical methods are used to calculate the physical attributes of substances or compounds that are used in a sample. These methods help to understand the elements that are there in a sample.

These methods are commonly used as they are very simple and they are very prompt when compared to other analytical methods. The alterations in the attributes of the system are spotted by calculating data related to specific rotation, absorbance, migration differences, refractive indexes, and charge to mass ratios.

Biological Methods

The biological methods are utilized when the effectiveness of a drug cannot be measured by other chemical or physical methods. In this context, it is pertinent to say that micro-biological methods are used to measure the effectiveness of anti-microbial and antibiotic agents.

Applications of pharmaceutical analysis

The different pharmaceutical analysis techniques are used in the manufacturing industries to make sure that the raw materials that are utilized in the manufacturing industries meet necessary specifications and secondly to evaluate the quality of the product that is formed finally.

Also, industrial processes nowadays create pollutants and these can cause health hazards. Therefore, doing a quantitative analysis of water, air, and soil samples is performed to understand the pollution levels as well as to understand the safe limits for various pollutants.

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