PHAR30110 Cardiovascular & Renal Disease Assignment Example UCD Ireland
This module teaches you about the pathogenesis, pathology, and pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular diseases and related rental diseases. It also discusses microbiology, which is applicable to this field. Specific areas covered include hypertension, atheroma, ischaemic heart disease (angina pectoris and dyslipidemias), thrombosis, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, valvular heart disease including endocarditis. In this course, you will learn about the various processes involved in kidney function and disease. You’ll focus on major diseases affecting your local organ (glomerular) as well as therapeutic uses for diuretics that can reduce pressure during times of high stress or injury to help prevent permanent damage done by hypertension.
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In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like a group project, individual assignment, continuous assessment, report, business plan, business proposal, executive summary, and other solutions are given by us.
When you have completed the Cardiovascular (CVD) and Renal Diseases module, you should be able to:
Assignment Task 1: Describe the pathogenesis and pathology of atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, and thrombosis
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty material (plaque) builds upon the inner walls. This can lead to a narrowing of the artery, called stenosis, which reduces the amount of blood that can flow through. If the plaque ruptures, it can cause a blood clot to form (thrombus), which can completely block the artery, reducing blood flow even further.
Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is where the major coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by fatty material (plaque). A heart attack occurs when this plaque ruptures and blood appears in the coronary artery, restricting blood flow to part of the heart muscle. Myocardial infarction (MI) is the medical term for a heart attack.
Thrombosis is where a blood clot develops and then moves to another part of the body, usually another artery that needs less protection; this can cause reduced blood flow or damage to organs such as the brain, kidneys, and lungs. This can be fatal depending on where the blood clot forms.
Assignment Task 2: Demonstrate an understanding of genetic and environmental factors that may pre-dispose to CVD
Genetic factors that may pre-dispose to Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) include:
- Family history of heart disease
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels
Environmental factors that may pre-dispose to CVD include:
- An unhealthy diet high in saturated fat and/or salt
- Physical inactivity
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Long term stress
Assignment Task 3: Describe the laboratory techniques used in the diagnosis of CVD
There are a number of laboratory techniques that can be used to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. These include:
- Blood tests to measure cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, and inflammation markers
- Echocardiography – an ultrasound of the heart that can assess heart function and look for areas of damage
- Electrocardiography (ECG) – a test that measures electrical activity in the heart through electrodes attached to the patient’s body and records any abnormalities
- Coronary angiogram – a specialized X-ray used to look at blood flow through the coronary arteries inside the heart
- Coronary angiogram to look at the arteries supplying the heart muscle
- Renal angiogram to look at the arteries supplying the kidneys
- Stress test to measure how well the heart copes with increased activity.
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Assignment Task 4: Distinguish between clinical signs and symptoms associated with different cardiovascular diseases
There are a number of clinical signs and symptoms associated with different cardiovascular diseases. These can include:
- Chest pain – usually caused by ischaemic heart disease, angina pectoris, or a heart attack
- Shortness of breath – often caused by heart failure
- Swelling of the feet and ankles – often caused by congestive heart failure
- Fatigue – a common symptom of many cardiovascular diseases
- Dizziness or lightheadedness – often caused by low blood pressure
- Rapid or irregular heartbeat – can be a sign of many different cardiovascular diseases
- Nausea and vomiting – often caused by a heart attack, ischaemic heart disease, or congestive heart failure
- Passing out or blacking out – a sign of extremely low blood pressure
Assignment Task 5: Describe the mechanisms of action of therapeutic agents used for the treatment and effective management of CVD
There are a number of therapeutic agents used for the treatment and effective management of CVD. These include:
- Beta-blockers – medication that blocks beta receptors, which reduces heart rate and blood pressure, as well as reducing the force with which the heart pumps blood
- ACE inhibitors – a class of drugs that helps to relax the blood vessels by stopping a hormone called angiotensin from narrowing them
- Statins – a class of drug that works by blocking the production of cholesterol in the body, reducing inflammation, and making it easier for blood to flow around the body
- Angiotensin-II receptor blockers – drugs that relax the blood vessels so they can widen and lower blood pressure
- Anticoagulants – medication that prevents blood from clotting
- Aspirin – a drug that works as an anti-inflammatory and which makes the blood less likely to clot
Assignment Task 6: Distinguish between the pharmacological approaches to treatment and prophylaxis of CVD
There are a number of pharmacological approaches to the treatment and prophylaxis of CVD. These include:
- Combination therapy – where two or more drugs are used together in order to provide a stronger effect than would be achieved by using the drugs individually
- Monotherapy – where one drug is used alone, rather than being combined with other medications
- Alternating therapy – where one drug is used for a period of time, then another drug is used once the effect of the first has worn off
- Prophylaxis – prevention of disease by taking medication
- Pre-emptive treatment – treating people before they show signs or symptoms of CVD, rather than waiting for them to become symptomatic.
Assignment Task 7: Describe the major disease processes affecting the kidney, including diabetic nephropathy
There are a number of major disease processes affecting the kidney, including diabetic nephropathy. This is a complication of diabetes that occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the kidneys over time. Symptoms can include increased thirst and urination, fatigue, and nausea. If left untreated, diabetic nephropathy can lead to kidney failure.
There are a number of other disease processes affecting the kidneys, including:
- Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis – scarring of the glomeruli in the kidney, leading to reduced blood flow and damage to nephrons
- Interstitial Cystitis – inflammation in the bladder wall which leads to changes in how much urine is produced, pain, and a need to urinate frequently
- Polycystic Kidney Disease – a genetic disorder that causes fluid-filled cysts to develop in the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure
- Acute Renal Failure – sudden loss of kidney function, often as a result of an infection or drug overdose
- Chronic Renal Failure – long-term loss of kidney function, often caused by diabetes or high blood pressure
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Assignment Task 8: Describe the therapeutic approach in patients with salt and water (volume) overload, including sites, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic uses of diuretics
There are a number of therapeutic approaches in patients with salt and water (volume) overload, including:
Diuretics – medications that increase the production of urine so there is less fluid left to be reabsorbed by the body. They work by increasing sodium excretion in the kidneys and/or decreasing uric acid and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
Diuretics can be subdivided into:
- Thiazide diuretics – a class of diuretics that blocks sodium from being reabsorbed back into the body through the distal tubule and collecting duct in the nephron, which makes it easier for water to follow
- Loop diuretics – a class of diuretics that blocks the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the loop of Henle, leading to a reduction in the volume of fluid in the body
- Potassium-sparing diuretics – a class of diuretics that prevents potassium from being excreted from the body, which can lead to problems such as arrhythmias
Diuretics can be used either as a standalone treatment or in combination with other medications. They are generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated but can cause side effects such as dehydration and low blood pressure.
Assignment Task 9: Describe mechanisms of nephrotoxicity
The mechanisms of nephrotoxicity can include:
- Direct toxicity – where the drug or its metabolites damage the cells of the kidney
- Indirect toxicity – where the drug damages other organs in the body (such as the liver) and this damage is then reflected back to the kidneys
- Immunologic toxicity – where the drug triggers an immune response that leads to inflammation and damage to the kidneys
Nephrotoxicity can range from mild (where the kidneys only lose a small amount of function) to severe (where the kidneys are unable to filter blood and produce urine). It can also be reversible or irreversible.
Assignment Task 10: Characterize the pathology of urinary tract infections:
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that have entered the body through the urethra (the tube which connects the bladder to the outside of the body). Symptoms can include pain or burning when urinating, an increased need to urinate, and cloudy urine. The most common type of bacteria present in urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli.
Pathologically, UTIs can involve the urethra, bladder, and kidneys. The bacteria can invade and cause inflammation in any of these areas. If the infection spreads to the kidneys, it can lead to kidney damage or even kidney failure. UTIs are treated with antibiotics but it is important to catch them early as they can be difficult to treat if they have caused significant kidney damage.
Pathology can include:
- Inflammation of the bladder wall – this can lead to pain, a need to urinate frequently, and changes in how much urine is produced
- Urethral inflammation – this can lead to pain and a burning sensation when urinating
- Bladder and renal stones – the formation of crystals in the kidneys and/or bladder due to an infection
- Resistance to antibiotics – where the bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics so they are not as effective at fighting them off
In infants with urinary tract infections, damage to the upper urinary tract can occur which may result in permanent kidney damage.
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