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PHAR20040 Pharmacology: Biomedical Science Assignment Example UCD Ireland

This module teaches you the fundamental principles of how drugs are absorbed, metabolized, and excreted by your body as well as their interaction with other substances in our bodies. You will also learn about the different ways drugs can interact with our bodies, such as by binding to receptors or altering intracellular receptor signaling. Finally, you will gain an understanding of how neurotransmitters work and how they are involved in drug action. This module teaches you about the autonomic nervous system and peripheral organ systems it regulates. You will explore diseases of the cardiovascular system, learn how drugs are used to treat them or have an effect on other organs such as respiratory and digestive tracts-and even get some ideas for future projects.

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In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like a group project, individual assignment, continuous assessment, report, business plan, business proposal, executive summary, and other solutions are given by us.

On completion of this module, students should be able to:

Assignment Activity 1: Describe the principles of drug-body and body-drug interactions

Drug-body interactions are the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted. This involves several processes by which the drug can vary in its activity.

Body-drug interactions are how the body responds to the presence of a drug or drugs (pharmacodynamics). Drug receptors on cell membranes allow cells to receive chemical signals like hormones. These signals then initiate specific cellular responses. When a drug binds to its receptor, it can either activate or inhibit the receptor’s natural activity.

Assignment Activity 2: Discuss neurotransmitter signaling in the peripheral nervous system

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow nerve cells to communicate with each other. When a nerve cell is activated, it releases neurotransmitters into the synapse (the space between two nerve cells). The neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the next nerve cell, which starts the signal transmission process all over again. This allows the signal to be passed rapidly from one nerve cell to the next, even if those cells are quite far apart.

There are two main types of neurotransmitters: excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory neurotransmitters stimulate the next nerve cell to fire, while inhibitory neurotransmitters decrease the firing rate of the next nerve cell.

Assignment Activity 3: Comprehend the major divisions of the nervous system

There are two main divisions of the nervous system: the central and peripheral nervous systems. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is everything else (both halves of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems).

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The CNS is responsible for receiving and processing information from the outside world, as well as controlling our body’s movements. The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

The brain is the center for thought, learning, memory, and emotion. It also controls the body’s senses (sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) and muscles. The brain is divided into several regions, each with its own specialized functions.

The spinal cord is a long, thin tube that extends from the base of the brain to the lower back. It carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord contains bundles of nerve cells that relay messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The PNS is responsible for sending and receiving signals between the CNS and the rest of the body. The PNS is made up of two parts: the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system.

The autonomic nervous system controls all the involuntary functions of the body, such as heart rate, respiration, digestion, and urination. The autonomic nervous system can be divided into two parts: the sympathetic nervous system, which speeds up activity, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which slows down activity.

The somatic nervous system controls all the movements that we voluntarily make with our muscles. All skeletal muscles are innervated by somatic motor nerves.

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Assignment Activity 4: Explain the drugs classes that can influence the control of peripheral organs:

There are four main drug classes that can influence the control of peripheral organs: beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics.

  1. Beta-blockers are a class of drugs that block the effects of the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline). This decreases the heart rate and blood pressure, which makes them useful in treating conditions such as hypertension and angina.
  2. Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs that block the movement of calcium into muscles cells in blood vessels, which causes them to relax and decreases blood pressure. This makes them useful in treating high blood pressure and angina.
  3. ACE inhibitors block an enzyme called Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE), which is responsible for raising blood pressure. Inhibiting this enzyme lowers blood pressure, making ACE inhibitors useful in treating hypertension and congestive heart failure.
  4. Diuretics are a class of drugs that increase the amount of sodium that gets excreted from the kidneys into the urine. This decreases fluid volume, making them useful in treating conditions such as hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Assignment Activity 5: Describe the biology of the cardiovascular system and discuss the various drug classes that treat its dysfunction in diseases including hypertension, angina, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and cardiac failure

The cardiovascular system is responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body. It consists of the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood through the arteries to all parts of the body. The blood vessels are lined with a layer of cells called the endothelium, which helps to regulate blood pressure and prevents the formation of blood clots. There are several different types of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms), thrombosis (blood clotting), and cardiac failure (heart failure).

There are several different drug classes that can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics are all effective in treating hypertension. Beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are also effective in treating angina. Antiarrhythmic drugs can be used to treat arrhythmias, and anticoagulants can be used to treat thrombosis. Diuretics and ACE inhibitors are also effective in treating cardiac failure.

Assignment Activity 6: Describe the pharmacology of the respiratory system, including the drug treatments for asthma

The respiratory system is responsible for breathing. It consists of the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. Bronchial tubes are airways in the lungs that are surrounded by smooth muscle cells called the bronchial tree. The muscles surrounding these cells contract to narrow or constrict the airways, which makes it difficult for air to pass through. This causes wheezing and shortness of breath in people with asthma.

The drug treatments for asthma include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and leukotriene modifiers. Bronchodilators are drugs that relax the bronchial muscles, which opens up the airways and makes breathing easier. Corticosteroids are drugs that reduce inflammation in the bronchial tubes, which also makes it easier to breathe. Leukotriene modifiers block leukotrienes, chemicals that cause narrowing of the bronchial tubes by contracting muscles surrounding them.

Assignment Activity 7: Describe the pharmacology of the gastrointestinal tract, including the treatment of gastric ulcer disease

The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the digestion and absorption of food. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The stomach is a pouch-like organ that stores food and gastric juices. The gastric juices contain hydrochloric acid and pepsin, which are necessary for the digestion of protein. The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that absorbs nutrients from the food. The large intestine is a shorter tube that absorbs water and electrolytes from the food. The waste product and undigestible food that is leftover from digestion in the small intestine is excreted from the large intestine.

The treatments for gastric ulcer disease include proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers, and antacids. Proton pump inhibitors block cells called parietal cells in the stomach from releasing hydrogen ions (H+). H2 blockers block histamine, a chemical that causes the cells in the stomach to produce acid. Antacids are drugs that neutralize gastric acids. This helps to relieve the symptoms of gastric ulcer disease, such as pain and inflammation.

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