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NU249 Biological Sciences II NUIG Assignment Sample Ireland

NU249 Biological Sciences II is a course that covers a variety of topics in the field of biology. These topics include but are not limited to genetics, biochemistry, and immunology. The course is designed for students who have already taken NU248 Biological Sciences I.

In this course, you will learn about the molecular and cellular basis of life. You will also learn about the structure and function of DNA, RNA, proteins, and enzymes. Additionally, you will learn about the genetic processes that occur within cells and how they can lead to diseases. Finally, you will learn about important biological molecules like antibodies and their role in immunity.

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There are many different types of biological sciences, but one of the most important is understanding how cells work. Cells are the building blocks of all living things, so by understanding how they function, we can better understand how life itself works. This type of knowledge is critical for developing new treatments for diseases and improving our overall health.

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In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like individual assignments, group-based assignments, reports, case studies, final year projects, skills demonstrations, learner records, and other solutions given by us. We also provide Group Project Presentations for Irish students.

In this section, we are describing some tasks. These are:

Assignment Task 1: Describe and explain aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the: Integumentary and lymphatic systems, Musculoskeletal system.

Integumentary and lymphatic systems:

The integumentary system is responsible for protecting the body from the environment. It consists of the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands. The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is a thin, outer layer that provides a waterproof barrier. The dermis is a thick, inner layer that contains sweat glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings.

The lymphatic system consists of lymph nodes, lymph vessels, and lymphocytes. Lymph nodes are small organs that filter out foreign substances from the lymphatic fluid. Lymph vessels carry lymph fluid throughout the body. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that fight infection.

Musculoskeletal system:

The musculoskeletal system is a complex and amazing system that is responsible for the mobility of the human body. It comprises the muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.

The muscles are responsible for movement while the bones provide structure and support. The cartilage acts as a cushion between the bones while the ligaments connect one bone to another and stabilize joints. Tendons attach muscle to bone and allow them to generate force.

All of these components work together to create a system that can move our bodies in every possible direction. The musculoskeletal system is also responsible for maintaining our posture and balance. It’s an amazing system that we often take for granted!

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Assignment Task 2: Define common genetic terms, for example, chromosome, diploid, gene, and homozygous, and relate these definitions to normal healthy cells.

Chromosomes: Chromosomes are structures in the cell nucleus that carry genetic information. Humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent.

Diploid: Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome, one from each parent. Most cells in the body are diploid.

Gene: A gene is a unit of inheritance that contains the information necessary to specify a particular trait. Genes are located on chromosomes.

Homozygous: Homozygous cells have two copies of the same gene, one from each parent. For example, if both parents were carriers of Huntington’s disease, their child would be homozygous and would develop Huntington’s disease.

Heterozygous: Heterozygous cells have two different copies of a gene, one from each parent. For example, if one parent has blue eyes and the other has brown eyes, their child would be heterozygous for eye color and would have blue eyes.

Normal healthy cells: Normal healthy cells are diploid cells that have two copies of each chromosome. They are not heterozygous for any genes and do not have any genetic disorders.

Assignment Task 3: Explain using examples of normal traits: simple autosomal inheritance (dominant and recessive), multiple alleles, and polygenic inheritance.

Normal traits can be passed down in a number of ways, but the most common is simple autosomal inheritance (dominant and recessive). For example, if one parent has a dominant gene for blue eyes and the other parent has a recessive gene for blue eyes, then their child will have blue eyes. This is because the dominant gene always overrides the recessive gene.

Multiple alleles are when there are more than two versions of a particular gene. For example, blood type is determined by multiple alleles. There are three different versions of the blood type gene – A, B, and O – and each person has two copies of the blood type gene (one from each parent). That’s why there are six different blood types – A, AB, B, BO, O, and null.

Polygenic inheritance is when a trait is determined by multiple genes. For example, height is determined by polygenic inheritance. There are many different genes that contribute to height, and each gene contributes a small amount to the overall height. This is why height is a continuous trait and there is no such thing as a “tall gene.”

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Assignment Task 4: Give examples of common genetic diseases including simple autosomal inheritance (dominant and recessive) and sex-linked disorders.

There are many different types of genetic diseases, but some of the most common include simple autosomal disorders (both dominant and recessive) and sex-linked disorders. Dominant disorders are caused by a mutated gene that is passed down from one parent to their child; even if only one parent has the disorder, their child has a 50% chance of developing it as well. Recessive disorders occur when both parents have the mutated gene; in this case, the child has a 25% chance of developing the disorder.

Finally, sex-linked disorders are caused by mutations on the X chromosome; these conditions are more common in men than women because men only have one X chromosome. Some examples of genetic diseases include cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, Huntington’s disease, and color blindness.

Assignment Task 5: Understand common chromosomal disorders: numerical and structural.

There are two types of chromosomal disorders: numerical and structural. Numerical disorders occur when there is an abnormal number of chromosomes, while structural disorders occur when the structure of the chromosomes is abnormal.

Common numerical disorders include trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), and trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Common structural disorders include Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

While these disorders can be associated with various health problems, it is important to remember that each individual with a chromosomal disorder is unique and will not necessarily experience all of the possible symptoms. With proper medical care and support, many people with chromosomal disorders lead happy and full lives.

Assignment Task 6: Identify and describe the characteristics of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found almost everywhere on Earth. They are very small and simple in structure, but they can be very powerful and dangerous. Bacteria can cause diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, and meningitis.

Fungi are multi-celled organisms that include yeasts and molds. They can be found in the air, in soil, on plants, and on food. Fungi reproduce by spores, which can travel through the air or water to new locations. Fungal infections such as athlete’s foot and ringworm are common.

Protozoa are single-celled organisms that live in water or moist environments. Some protozoa are parasites and can cause diseases such as malaria, amoebiasis, and giardiasis.

Viruses are tiny particles that can only reproduce inside the cells of other organisms. They are not considered to be alive because they do not have their own metabolism or cells. Viruses are responsible for many common diseases such as the flu, chickenpox, and AIDS.

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Assignment Task 7: Understand how the body responds to infection including non-specific defenses against infection; specific immune response and inflammatory response.

The body responds to infection in several ways, including non-specific defenses against infection, specific immune responses, and inflammatory responses. Each of these mechanisms helps to protect the body from harmful microorganisms.

Non-specific defenses against infection include physical barriers such as skin and mucous membranes, as well as chemical substances like enzymes and stomach acid. These barriers prevent pathogens from entering the body or cause them to be killed before they can do any harm.

The specific immune response is a complex series of reactions that are triggered when the body encounters a pathogen. This response begins with the recognition of foreign molecules by special cells called antigen-presenting cells. These cells then activate other immune system cells, which work together to eliminate the pathogen from the body.

The inflammatory response is a nonspecific immune response that occurs when the body is injured or infected. This response is characterized by redness, swelling, and pain at the site of the injury or infection. The inflammatory response helps to protect the body by keeping pathogens away from damaged tissues and by destroying them.

Assignment Task 8: Explain the process of immunization.

Immunization, or vaccination, is the process by which an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease. Immunization can occur naturally, as with chickenpox and measles, or through artificial means, as with a vaccine. Immunization is recommended for everyone and has led to the eradication of smallpox and the near-eradication of polio.

The human body develops immunity in two ways: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body’s natural defense against infection, and it is present at birth. Adaptive immunity develops after exposure to a specific pathogen and leads to long-term resistance to that pathogen. The adaptive immune system produces antibodies that specifically target that pathogen.

Vaccines are made from weakened or killed pathogens that are injected into the body. These vaccines help the body to develop immunity against the disease without causing the disease itself. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infectious diseases, and it has led to the eradication of smallpox and the near-eradication of polio.

Immunization is recommended for everyone, and vaccination schedules are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Assignment Task 9: Describe how infections are managed and the role of antibiotics.

Infections are managed by detecting and diagnosing the infection, then prescribing the appropriate antibiotic.

Antibiotics are drugs that kill or stop the growth of bacteria. They are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. There are many different types of antibiotics, and each one is prescribed for a specific type of infection.

The most common way to detect infection is by taking a culture of the infected area. This involves growing a sample of the bacteria in a lab in order to identify it. Once the bacteria has been identified, the doctor can prescribe the appropriate antibiotic.

If you take antibiotics when you don’t need them, it can lead to resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria are strains of bacteria that no longer respond to the antibiotics that are used to treat them. This can make the infection difficult to treat and can lead to serious health problems.

It is important to take antibiotics exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not stop taking them before you are finished, even if you feel better. If you stop taking antibiotics before they are finished, you may increase the chance of developing resistance.

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Assignment Task 10: Demonstrate clinical application of the knowledge gained in this module in nursing and skills-based modules.

In nursing and skills-based modules, the clinical application of knowledge gained is essential for the provision of quality patient care. As a nurse, you must be able to use your knowledge to assess patients, plan care, implement interventions, and evaluate outcomes. The same is true for skills-based modules – you must be able to use your newly acquired skills in a safe and effective manner.

It is critical that you take the time to apply the knowledge you have learned in both theory and practice settings. Only by doing so can you ensure that you are able to provide quality care to your patients. nurses must also be lifelong learners who keep up with the latest advances in their field so that they can provide the best possible care to their patients.

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