BY4002 Biology 2 Assignment example UL Ireland
This course will explore the fundamental concepts in cellular reproduction and genetics, diversity of life- introductory plant physiology as well as evolution. We’ll also talk about ecological principles which are essential for anyone who wants to understand how organisms interact with their environment.
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On successful completion of the module students should be able to:
Describe the stages in mitosis and meiosis and explain the significance of the difference between these two processes
- Mitosis is a biological process of cell division that results in two daughter cells. This process occurs in both the animal and plant kingdoms. The process of mitosis can be broken down into 4 stages, each of which is important in the overall process of mitosis. These are the prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, and metaphase. The importance of mitosis is that it leads to increased cell numbers in cells with limited space.
- Meiosis is the process of biological cell division resulting in four daughter cells, or gametes. This is a part of the sex cell division process. The process of meiosis can be broken down into 4 stages, each of which is important in the overall process of meiosis. These are leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, and diplotene.
The difference between these two cellular processes is that mitosis is a type of cell division that happens in the majority of cases in cells with limited space, while meiosis is the type of cell division that happens in sex cells, meaning gametes. Mitosis is significant in that it helps to maintain the number of cells in the cell with limited space, while meiosis is significant in that it leads to offspring with genes that are different from the parents.
State Mendel’s laws and be able to explain the basis of these laws as functions of the cycle of reproductive cells and probability
There are three laws of Mendelian inheritance, which are the foundation of modern genetics.
- The first law is the Law of Dominance, which states that when two alleles for a particular gene are expressed in a hybrid organism, the dominant allele will be expressed and the recessive allele will be hidden.
- The second law is the Law of Segregation, which states that during gamete formation (the process by which sex cells are formed), each gene will segregate (separate) into a different gamete. This law explains how genetic variation is maintained in a population.
- The third law is the Law of Independent Assortment, which states that genes for different characteristics are sorted into gametes independently of one another. Therefore, the appearance of any given trait is a result of all of the genes and their corresponding alleles and alleles (variations) working together.
The basic premise of Mendelian inheritance is that an organism’s inherited traits (the various and specific physical and chemical attributes that make up the individual identifying it as a particular type of living thing) come from its parents. Through the process of fertilization, an individual inherits traits from each of his or her parents. In each parent, the genes are arranged as a pair, one from each parent. In a diploid organism, each gene is on a chromosome containing two genes.
- Whenever a creature inherits two different alleles, one allele will “dominate” the other and the first-mentioned allele is called the “dominant” allele, while the second-mentioned allele is called the “recessive” allele. A dominant trait for a trait of interest is often represented by a capital letter, while a recessive gene for a trait of interest is often represented by a lowercase letter.
- For each trait, one or the other of the pair of genes always manages to “breakthrough” the inherited trait. For example, if an individual inherits the dominant allele for eye color, then they will have the same eye color as the dominant parent.
- Genes are not always passed on to offspring in the same way that they are passed on to the parents. Imagine two parents who are diploid organisms with four different recessive traits (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The parents may produce an offspring with any of the following combinations of traits: RR, Rr, R1R2, R1R3, R2R3, R1R4, R2R4, R1R2R3, and R1R2R4. This is how inheritance works in inheritance, or how to calculate the probability of inheriting a trait.
Solve simple problems relating to patterns of recessive, dominant, and sex-linked inheritance
- Recessive inheritance: If one parent has a recessive gene for a particular trait and the other parent does not have the gene, then all of the children will have the trait. This is because the recessive gene will be hidden in those children who inherit it from one of their parents who does not have the gene.
- Dominant inheritance: If one parent has a dominant gene for a particular trait and the other parent does not have the gene, then half of the children will have the trait. This is because only one copy of the dominant gene is needed to show the trait. The other half of the children will inherit that dominant gene from their parent, but they will also inherit a recessive gene from the other parent, so those genes will be masked. This is because the dominant gene will “mask out” those genes from those parents who do not have the dominant gene.
- Sex-linked inheritance: Sex-linked disorders are those that are passed down through the X chromosome. Because men have only one X chromosome, they will express any disorder that is located on that chromosome. Women, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, and so if a disorder is located on one of their X chromosomes, it will only be expressed if that particular X chromosome is passed down from their father.
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Conceptualize a structural and functional model of the gene
A gene is a stretch of DNA that codes for a protein. The gene is structurally composed of two strands of DNA that coil around each other to form the familiar double helix. The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between the base pairs (A with T, C with G). The sequence of base pairs determines the genetic code and, hence, the protein that will be produced.
The gene is functionally active when it is “transcribed” into RNA. This process begins when an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the gene and creates a single-stranded RNA molecule. The RNA molecule then “reads” the genetic code and assembles a protein molecule according to those instructions.
List representative examples of organisms from the main groups of organisms
There are four of these fall into the category of major organisms: bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotes.
- Bacteria: Bacteria can live in many different environments and types of environments and the purposes of their existence vary as well: they can use photosynthesis like plants, or they can use other cellular processes like fermentation or respiration to get their energy. For example E. coli, Salmonella, and Streptococcus.
- Archaea: Archaeal cells use metabolisms like fermentation or respiration to get their energy as well as crapping out ammonia as a waste product, and they’re less adapted to the environment than bacteria. Archaea can live in a lot of different kinds of environments and it’s a little less clear what kinds of reasons they exist in the different kinds of environments. For example, Methane-producing organisms, Halophiles.
- Viruses: Viruses are minimum living things that replicate inside living cells, and can cause them to mutate or kill them. They’re barely living organisms with a protein self-coating. It’s hard to measure how many viruses exist, but a lot of them infect bacteria and archaea cells as well as eukaryotes.
- Eukaryotes: These are organisms that have a nucleus in their cells, and, in most cases, a membrane-bound organelle called a mitochondrion, in addition to other cellular organelles. Examples are Protists (Paramecium), Fungi (Rhizopus), Plants (Arabidopsis), and Animals (Drosophila melanogaster).
Compare and contrast organisms based on morphology and evolutionary relationships
Many types of organisms exist and they are extremely diverse, but it’s also important to understand the relationship between all of them.
Based on morphology, there are organisms like Chlorophyta (Heterokonts), Protists (Paramecium), Fungi (Rhizopus), and Plants (Arabidopsis) that are eukaryotes, which means they have a nucleus in their cells.
On the other hand, there are some organisms like viruses (parvovirus B19), some bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), archaea (Halobacterium), and animals (Drosophila melanogaster) that are prokaryotes, which has no nucleus in their cells.
Some of these organisms are more closely related to each other than others are, so they are sub-divided into subgroups of organisms called phyla. For example, animals are more closely related to plants than they are to bacteria, so animals are grouped into the phylum Animalia, plants are grouped into the phylum Plantae, and bacteria are grouped into the phylum Proteobacteria.
The evolutionary relationship between these organisms is how the discovered material and evidence are interpreted and explained. For example, based on morphology, it is the similarities in the types of structures in each organism that is indicative of their evolutionary relationship.
Explain why evolution is a guiding principle in understanding the origins and relationships between organisms
The evolutionary relationship between these organisms means that the way the material and evidence are interpreted, is based on either the type of similarities in each organism, or it is based on the evolutionary separation in the types of structures in each organism. These are both indicative of their evolutionary relationship.
Evolutionary principles provide a scientific basis for understanding the origins and relationships among organisms. The theory of evolution by natural selection is the unifying principle of biology and explains the common features of life that are shared by all organisms, from bacteria to humans.
The process of evolution is driven by two key mechanisms: mutation and natural selection. Mutations are random changes in the genetic material, and some of these mutations result in changes in the appearance or function of an organism. Natural selection is the process by which those individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those individuals with less advantageous traits. Over time, this leads to evolutionary change as beneficial traits become more common in a population.
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Describe the main types of tissues and structures found in plants and relate these to function and environmental influences
There are three main types of tissue in plants- dermal, vascular, and ground.
- The dermal tissue functions to provide protection and it is found in leaves, stems, and even roots.
- The vascular tissue functions to provide structure to the plant through the movement of water and nutrients, and it is found in the xylem and phloem of the plant. Vascular tissue is mainly found in the stems and roots.
- Ground tissue is found in the surrounding environment and functions in providing structural supports and protection, and in preventing excess water and nutrients in the environment from entering the body of the plant.
Additionally, different structures within plants are adapted to specific environmental conditions. For example, leaves are typically thin and flat to maximize exposure to sunlight while stems are thicker and more sturdy to support the plant’s weight. And a big environmental influence on a plant is light. Exposure to light in a particular range of the visible spectrum usually requires a particular type of tissue for adequate absorption.
Give a detailed account of reproduction in flowering plants and show this differs from typical reproduction in animals
Flowering plants have two different types of cells that are important in reproduction: the pollen grain and the embryo sac.
The pollen grain is responsible for transferring the male genetic material to the female reproductive organ. Pollen grains are tiny and light, so they can be blown by the wind from one plant to another.
The embryo sac is responsible for transferring the female genetic material to the male reproductive organ. The embryo sac is larger and heavier than pollen grains, so it can’t be carried by the wind. Instead, it’s transferred from one plant to another when insects like bees or butterflies eat nectar from flowers. Once inside the insect’s stomach, the embryo sac breaks open and releases its embryos into the insect’s digestive system.
Flowering plants reproduce differently than animals in a few ways.
- First, flowering plants can produce seeds without fertilization by a sperm cell. This process is called apomixis, and it results in the production of genetically identical offspring. Some flowering plants also can regenerate an entire plant from just a single leaf or stem.
- Second, flowers are structurally unique in that they contain both male and female reproductive organs. The male organs, called stamens, produce pollen, while the female organs, called pistils, contain the ovules where the seeds will form.
Show how ecosystems are structured and explain the energetic and material cycles that underlie ecosystems
An ecosystem is a complicated community of plants and animals of different species living in a certain location. Imagine a pond. For a picture of a pond ecosystem, the layering from the top to the bottom includes the water, water plants, aquatic animals, mud and rocks on the bottom of the pond, and crawling things underneath the water. Most of the animals in the pond ecosystem are water animals, though some animals can live on the bank of the pond, too. The pond ecosystem starts at where the water meets the land.
An ecosystem is a complicated community of plants and animals of different species living in a certain location. The layering from the top to the bottom includes the water, water plants, aquatic animals, mud and rocks on the bottom of the pond, and crawling things underneath the water. Most of the animals in the pond ecosystem are water animals, though some animals can live on the bank of the pond, too. The pond ecosystem starts at where the water meets the land.
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