QQI Level 5 Anatomy And Physiology 5N0749 – Unit 2: The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Assignment Example Ireland
There are many different parts of the human body, each with its own important functions. The skeletal and muscular systems are two key components of the human body, working together to allow us to move and function. The skeletal system is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. The muscles attach to the bones and are responsible for moving them. In this unit, we will take a closer look at these two systems and their roles in our bodies.
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In this course, there are many types of assignments given to students like a learner record, work experience diary, personal reflection, skills demonstration, structure report writing, presentation, and other solutions are given by us.
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Assignment Task 1: List the functions of the skeleton
The skeleton is the framework of the human body. It is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. The bones are held together by ligaments and muscles attach to the bones to allow us to move. The skeleton has several important functions, including:
- Structure: The skeleton provides a framework for the human body.
- Protection: The bones protect the internal organs, such as the heart and brain.
- Storage: Certain parts of the body have storage areas made up of bone, such as in your hip bone (pelvis) where the bone stores calcium which can be released into the blood if needed.
- Movement: The skeleton moves the muscles, which in turn move our body.
Assignment Task 2: Outline the composition of bone
Bone is a type of connective tissue made up of protein, collagen, cells called osteocytes, and minerals. The main components are the protein strands called collagen that is created by cells known as osteoblasts. They are then strengthened with calcium phosphate crystals that develop into various shapes. These crystals are formed by the osteoclasts.
The three types of bone tissue are:
- Compact Bone: This is the strongest and most common type of bone. It is made up of tightly packed layers of osteons (bone cells).
- Spongy Bone: This type of bone has a lattice-like structure and is found in the ends of bones and in the vertebrae.
- Cancellous Bone: This is the spongiest type of bone and is found at the ends of long bones.
Assignment Task 3: Identify the main bones of the appendicular and axial skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is the bones of the limbs. It includes 108 bones that are attached to seven regions of the pectoral girdle and 26 bones in the pelvic girdle. The appendicular skeleton is made up of the bones in your arms and legs. These are:
- Humerus: This is the bone in your upper arm.
- Ulna: This is the bone in your forearm that curves around the side of your hand.
- Radius: This is the bone in your forearm that runs down the thumb-side of your hand.
- Pelvic Girdle: This is the pelvic bone that sits below your waist and connects your upper body to your lower body. It consists of 2 bones: the ilium and the ischium.
- Femur: This is the bone in your thigh.
- Tibia: This is the larger of the two bones in your lower leg.
- Fibula: This is the smaller of the two bones in your lower leg. It provides a place for muscles to attach and helps to form the outer part of your ankle.
- Patella: This is also known as your kneecap.
The axial skeleton is the bones of the torso. It includes 80 bones that are attached to 22 regions of the skull, 12 vertebrae in the spinal column, and six pairs of ribs. The axial skeleton is made up of the bones that make up your head and trunk. These are:
- Skull(Cranium): The skull sits on the cervical vertebrae and protects the brain, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It consists of 22 bones that are fused together in adults.
- Vertebral Column: This column of bones is made up of 33 vertebrae that protect the spinal cord. These are divided into 5 regions: cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum (5), and coccyx (4). The thoracic region houses the ribs which connect to each vertebra with a pair of ribs on each side.
- Ribs: There are 12 pairs of ribs that attach to the thoracic vertebrae and wrap around the chest cavity.
- Hyoid Bone: This horseshoe-shaped bone is located at the base of your tongue and helps to support it.
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Assignment Task 4: Identify three major categories of joints and give examples of each
There are three major categories of joints:
Synarthrosis (Fixed Joints): This is a type of joint that is immovable and found in the skull. For example, The joints between bones form the sutures of the skull. These are immovable joints that allow for a very little movement.
Amphiarthrosis (Ball-and-Socket Joints): This is a type of joint that allows limited movement and is found in the vertebrae. The joints between vertebrae. These joints also allow for a very little movement and are found in the neck area.
Diarthrosis (Flexible Joints): This is a type of joint that allows for free movement and is found in the knees, elbows, wrists, fingers, etc. The joint between bones of the knee. This joint allows for free movement and is one of the most common types of diarthrosis.
Assignment Task 5: Differentiate between four types of synovial joints
There are four types of synovial joints. These are found where the bones are held together by the ligaments.
Ball-and-Socket Joints: This is a type of synovial joint that allows for free movement in all directions. It consists of a rounded head of one bone fitting into an indentation or socket part of another, similar bone. These joints are found in the hip and shoulder.
Hinge Joints: This is a type of synovial joint that allows for movement in one direction. It consists of a cylindrical head of one bone fitting into a curved groove or socket part of another, similar bone. These joints are found in the elbow and knee.
Pivot Joints: This is a type of synovial joint that allows for rotation around an axis. It consists of a cylindrical head of one bone fitting into a shallow indentation of another, similar bone. These joints are found in the neck and at the base of the thumb.
Saddle Joints: This is a type of synovial joint that allows for movement in two planes. It consists of a round head of one bone fitting into a saddle-shaped depression on another, similar bone. These joints are found mostly in the fingers and hands.
Assignment Task 6: Differentiate between the three types of muscle and give examples of each
There are three types of muscle:
Skeletal Muscle: This is the muscle that we can see and control. It attaches to the skeleton and is responsible for movement. This is the voluntary muscle that we use to move our bodies. It is attached to the bones by tendons. This muscle is found in the arms, legs, and torso. Examples of skeletal muscle would be the biceps, triceps, and pectorals.
Smooth Muscle: This is the muscle that lines the internal organs and blood vessels. It is involuntary and cannot be controlled. This muscle is found in the walls of organs and is responsible for involuntary movement. It is not attached to any bones and comes in sheets. This muscle is found in the stomach, intestines, bladder, and uterus. Examples of smooth muscle would be the muscles in your stomach and intestines.
Cardiac Muscle: This is the muscle that makes up the heart. It is involuntary and cannot be controlled. This muscle is only found in the heart and is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. For example, the Cardiac muscle would be the muscle in your heart.
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Assignment Task 7: Identify the main muscles of the body
There are over 650 skeletal muscles in the human body. However, there are only a few that we use most often. These are the muscles of the arms, legs, and torso. The main muscles of the body are:
- Biceps: This is a muscle in the arm that is used to bend the elbow. It is a skeletal muscle and is used to move the arm.
- Triceps: This is a muscle in the arm that is used to straighten the elbow. It is a skeletal muscle and is used to move the arm.
- Pectorals: This is a muscle in the chest that is used to draw the arms together. It is a skeletal muscle and is used to move the arm.
- Deltoids: These are muscles in the shoulder that are used to raise arms above their heads. They are skeletal muscles and are used to love movement.
- Lats: This is a muscle in the back that is used to draw the elbows behind the body. It is a skeletal muscle and is used to move the arm.
- Glutes: This is a muscle in the buttocks that is used to bring the thigh and trunk together in a sitting position. It is a skeletal muscle and is used to move the leg.
Assignment Task 8: Explain the interconnections between muscle and bone
The bones in our bodies are connected to the muscles by tendons. The muscles attach to the bones and pull on them, causing them to move. The bones also help to protect the muscles by holding them in place. For example, the biceps muscle is attached to the bone in the arm by a tendon. When the biceps contract, it pulls on the bone and causes the arm to move. The bones of the arm are connected together by ligaments, which help to hold the bones of our body in place.
Tendons: Tendons are the tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones. They are made of dense regular connective tissue. This type of tissue is strong and elastic, which allows it to withstand the forces generated by the muscles. The tendon absorbs some of the force generated by the muscle, which helps to protect the muscle from injury. For example, when you walk, the biceps contract. The tendon in your biceps absorbs some of this force, which protects your muscles from damage.
Assignment Task 9: Describe the interaction between the skeletal and muscular systems in body movement
The skeletal and muscular systems interact together to produce body movement. The muscles are attached to the bones by tendons, and when the muscles contract, they pull on the bones. This causes the bones to move. The bones help to protect the muscles by holding them in place.
For example, when you walk, your glutes contract. This causes the thigh and trunk to come together. The bones of the thigh and trunk are held in place by ligaments, which help to keep them together. The muscles in your glutes also pull on the bones in your ankle and cause them to move. This is how you walk.
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