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QQI Level 5 Anatomy and Physiology 5N0749 -Unit 1: Understanding the anatomy & physiology of the human body Assignments Ireland

The circulatory and lymphatic systems are an interconnected network of vessels that deliver oxygen, remove carbon dioxide as well as regulate the body’s temperature. The circulatory system contains a network of blood vessels carried by the heart, whilst the lymphatic system comprises a series of vessels and glands that deliver lymph to the systemic circulation.

In this unit, you will learn about the blood vessels of the circulatory system, their structure, and their function. You will also discover how these vessels are classified according to their structure and where they can be found within the body. The functions of both arteries and veins will be explained along with the processes that occur within them during contraction (myogenic) and dilation (dilatation). The lymphatic system will be examined in greater detail, including the structures of its vessels and how they are able to regulate temperature control.

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Learning outcomes of Understanding the anatomy & physiology of the human body

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

Differentiate between anatomy and physiology

Anatomy is the study of living bodies, organs and other parts that can be observed in bodies. Anatomy cannot be observed at the cellular level.

Physiology is the study of how bodily functions such as breathing, temperature control and cell creation work. Physiology also includes analysing how body systems interact with each other. Physiology can be observed at the cellular level, but not on a whole organism or organ level like anatomy can.

Describe the structure and function of a typical animal cell and its organelles

A typical animal cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, organelles and DNA. The plasma membrane is the cell’s outer boundary and is responsible for controlling what enters and leaves the cell. The cytoplasm is the gel-like material that fills the cell and contains all of the organelles (except the nucleus). Organelles are specialised structures that carry out specific functions within the cell, such as protein synthesis or energy production. DNA is responsible for storing genetic information and controlling the activity of the cell.

Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis is the process of cell replication that takes place in somatic cells. Mitosis results in two identical daughter cells with equal genetic information to the parent cell. Whilst meiosis is responsible for producing gametes (sex cells) and results in four daughter cells that are genetically unique from one another.

Mitosis and meiosis both result in cells with a copy of the original cell’s DNA information, but the difference is that mitosis results in two identical daughter cells and meiosis results in four different daughter cells.

Define the following terms: tissue, organ, system

Tissue is a group of cells that have a common structure and function. For example, the cells in your skin are all part of the same tissue (skin tissue).

Organs are collections of tissues that work together to carry out specific functions within the body. For example, your heart is made up of several different types of tissue (cardiac muscle, endothelial cells, etc.), but all of these tissues work together to pump blood through the body.

Systems are groups of organs that work together to carry out complex tasks such as regulating temperature or exchanging nutrients and waste products. Your heart and lungs are two separate organs, but they make up one system – the respiratory system – which works with your blood vessels to deliver oxygen throughout the body.

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Classify tissues into the four main groups: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue

Epithelial tissue is made up of cells that line the surfaces of organs and glands. They have a sheet-like structure and are responsible for protecting the body’s organs and controlling what enters and leaves them.

Connective tissue is made up of cells that support and connect other tissues in the body. They have a fibrous or gel-like structure and are found between other types of tissues.

Muscle tissue is made up of cells that produce movement or force and they surround and form the internal and external parts of the body’s organs (such as walls, muscles and valves).

Nervous tissue is made up of cells that transmit messages throughout the body via electrical impulses. They are found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves.

Identify the different tissues types within each classification

Epithelial tissue can be divided into two main types: squamous epithelium and cuboidal epithelium. Squamous epithelium is made up of thin, flat cells that are found on the surface of organs. Cuboidal epithelium is made up of cube-shaped cells that are found in the lining of hollow organs.

Connective tissue can be divided into three main types: loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue and elastic connective tissue. Loose connective tissue is made up of cells that are scattered throughout the body and provide support and protection. Dense connective tissue is made up of cells that are tightly packed together and provide strength and support. Elastic connective tissue is made up of cells that are stretchy and can recoil when stretched.

Muscle tissue can be divided into three main types: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle is attached to bones and is responsible for movements such as walking and running. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and is responsible for pumping blood around the body. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs and is responsible for contractions that move food and waste products through the body.

Nervous tissue can be divided into two main types: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, and it controls all of the body’s automatic (involuntary) and voluntary movements. The peripheral nervous system consists of all of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for carrying messages between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.

Differentiate between benign and malignant tumours

Benign tumours: Grow and divide at a normal rate, but they don’t spread into the healthy surrounding tissue. They can often be cured with surgery.

Malignant tumours: Grow and divide more quickly than benign tumours and they eventually form new blood vessels that allow them to spread (called metastasis) into other parts of the body through the circulatory or lymphatic systems. They are much more difficult to cure than benign tumours.

Benign tumours are abnormal growths in the body that can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Benign tumours come from cells that are capable of dividing and growing to produce more normal cells. Malignant tumours come from cells that have lost the ability to control cell division and grow to form lumps of cells that invade nearby tissues.

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